Reading Copy of Second Inaugural Address

The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Volume 45: 11 November 1804 to 8 March 1805
(Princeton University Press, 2021), 657-63
[before 4 Mch. 1805]
Proceedg. f. c. to yt qualfcn ′ wch ye Constn[1] reqres. befre. my entrnce. on ye charge agn. conferd. on me †
it is my duty t. exprss. ye deep sense I entertn. ′ of ys new[2] proof of confidce. frm. my f. c. at large †
& ye zeal wth. whch. it inspires m. ′ s. t. condct. myslf. ′ as m. best satsfy yr just expectns. ″
on takg. ys station on a formr occn, ′ I declrd. ye princples. on wch. I belv.d. it m. duty ′ t. admr. ye affrs. of our comweth. ″
my conscnce. tells me, ′ I hve. on evry. occn, ′ actd. up t. yt decln, † acordg. t. it’s obvs. imprt. & t. ye undstdg. of evry. candid mind. ″
In ye transctn. of yr forn. affrs. ′ w. hve endeavd. t. cultvte ye frdshp. of al natns. † & especly. of yos wth whch. we hve ye mst importt relations. ″
w. hve dne. ym justce. on al ocns; favr whre favr. ws. lawfl. & chersh.d. mutl intersts. & intercrse on fair & equal terms. ″
w. r firmly. convnc.d. & w. act on yt convctn. yt wth natns. as wth. indivd.ls or. intsts. soundly. calcld wll. evr b. fnd. inseprb. frm or morl. duties
& histy. bears witnss. t. ye fact yt a just natn. is trustd. on it’s wrd. whn. recrse is hd t. armamts. & wars t. bridle others. ″
At home f. c. you best know ′ whethr. w. hve done well or ill. ″
ye supresn. of unnecs.ry. ofics. ′ of uselss. establmts & expencs. ′ enabld. us t. discontnue. or internl. txes. ″
yse covr.g. our lnd. wth officrs. ′ & openg. or dors t. yr intrusns. ′ hd. alread. begn. yt procss of domicily. vextn. †
wch. once entd. is scarcely t. b. restrnd. ′ frm reachg. sucesvly. evry. artcle. of propty. & produce. ″
if amng. yse txes some[3] minr. ones fell, ′ wch. hd nt bn inconvt. † it ws. bec. yr amt wd nt hve. pd. ye officrs. wh. colectd. ym †
& bec. if y. hd. any mert. ′ ye sta. authorties. mt. adopt ym instd. of othrs. les aprovd.
The remaing. revnue. on ye consmptn. of forn. artcles. ′ is pd. chiefly. b. yos ′ wh cn aford t. ad forn. luxurs. ′ t. domestc. comforts. ″
beg. colectd. on or sea-bord & frontrs. only, ′ & incorported. wth ye transactns. of or. mercantle. citizens †
it m. b. ye pleasre & ye pride of an Amerc.n. t. ask ′ Wt. farmr, Wt. mechanc. Wt. laborr. evr. ses a txgathr.r. of ye US.? ″
yse contrbns enable us t. suprt ye curt. expces. of ye govmt. ′ t. fulfll. contrcts. wth forn natns. ′ t. extngsh ye natve. rt. of soil withn or. limits ′
t. extnd. yos limts. ′ & t. aply sch. a surpls. t. or pblc. debts ′ as placs. at a shrt day yr final redemptn. ″
& yt redmptn. once. effectd. ′ ye revnue. yrb. libert.d. ′ may b. a just repartn amg. ye stas. & a corespondg. amdmt. of ye Constn †
b. apld. in ti. of peace t. rivrs. canls. roads, arts, manfct.res. educn, & othr. great objcts. withn each state. ″
in ti. of War, if injustce b. ourslves or othrs. mst sometmes. prodce War ′ increasd as ye sa. revnue. wll b. by increasd populn & consumptn. †
& aidd. by othr. resourcs. reservd fr. yt crisis † it may meet withn. ye year ′ all ye expencs. of ye year †
witht. encrchg. on ye rights of future generns ′ by burthn.g. ym wth ye debts of ye past. ″
war wll. yn. b. ′ bt a suspensn of usefl. works; † & a return t. a sta. of peace ′ a return t. ye progrss of improvemt. ″
I hve. said f. c. yt ye income reservd. ′ hd. enabld us t. extend or. limts. ″
bt yt extensn. m. posbly p. fr itslf. befre. w. r cald. on, ′ & in ye mn. ti. m. kep down ye acrug. int. ″ In al evts it wll replce. ye advn.ces. w. shll hve made. ″
I know yt ye acqsn of LOUISA. hs bn disaprv.d. by sme. ′ frm a candd. apprehension[4] yt ye enlrgmt of or terity. wd endangr. it’s union. ″
bt. wh. cn limt. ye extt. t. wch ye fedrive princple. m. operte. effctv.ly.? ″ ye largr. or asocn, ′ less wll it b. shakn b. locl. pasns. ″
& in any view, Is it nt betr. yt ye opste. bk of ye Mispi shd b. setld. † b. or own brethrn. & chdrn. ′ yn b. strangrs. of anothr. family? ″
wth. wch shd w. b. mst likely ′ t. lve. in harmony, & frdly intercourse? ″
In matrs. of RELIGN I hve considd. ′ yt it’s fre exrcse. is placd. b. ye Constn ′ indepdt. of ye powrs. of ye Genl. Govmt. ″
I hve. yrfre. undertakn. on no occn ′ t. prescribe ye religs. exercises. suitd. t. it. ″
bt hve left ym, as ye Constn found ym ′ undr. ye directn. & disciplne. of ye sta. or chrch. authorties ′ acknl.d. b. ye sevl religs. societies. ″
The ABORIGN.L. inhabts. of yse countrs. ′ I hve. regardd. wth. ye comisrn yr histy. inspires. ″
endowd. wth. ye facults. & ye rights of men, ′ breathg. an ardt love of libty. & indepdce ′
& ocupyg. a country wch left ym n. desre. bt t. b. undistbd. † ye strm. of ovr-flowg popln frm. othr. regns. ′ dirct.d. itslf. on yse shores. ″
wth.t. powr. t. divert, or habts. t. contnd. agt. it ′ y. hve. bn overwhelmd. b. ye curt or drivn. befre. it. ″
now redc.d. withn limts. t. narw. fr ye hunter sta. ′ humanty. enjns. us t. teach ym agrcltre & ye domestc. arts †
t. encorge. ym t. yt industry ′ wch. alne. cn. enable. ym t. maintn. yr plce. in existce. †
& t. prepre. ym in time fr. yt sta. of socty. ′ wch t. bodly. comfrts. ads ye imprvmt of ye mind & morals. ″
w. hve. yrf. libly. furnsh.d ym wth ye implemts. of husbdry. & hhd use. † w. hve placd. amg. ym instrct.rs. in ye arts of 1st. necesty. †
& y. r covd. wth. ye Aegis of ye law ′ agt[5] agresrs. frm amg. ourslves. ″
Bt. ye endevrs. t. enlightn. ym ′ on ye fate wch. awts. yr prest. cours of life ′ t. induce ym t. exercse. yr reasn. follow it’s dicttes. ′
& chnge. yr pursts. wth ye chnge of circmstces. ′ hve powerfl. obstcles. t. encountr. ″
y. r combt.d. b. ye habts. of yr bods. prejdces. of yr minds, ignorce. pride, & ye influnce. of interst.d. & crafty indivd.ls. amg. ym †
wh. fel yms somethg. in ye prest. ordr. of things, ′ & fear t. becme. nothg. in any other. ″
yse persns. inculcte. a sanctmons revce. fr. ye custms. of yr ancestrs. ′ yt wt-soevr. y. did mst. b. dne. yro all time †
yt Reasn. is a false guide, ′ & t. advnce. undr. it’s counsl. in yr Physl. Morl or Politl. condn. ′ is perilous inovn. †
yt yr duty is t. remn. as yr Creatr mde ym ′ ignorce. beg. safety, & knolege full of danger. ″
in short, my frds. amg. ym als. is seen ′ ye actn. & counteractn. of good sense & of bigotry. ″
y. t. hve yr ANTI-PHILOSPHSTS. ′ wh. find an interst. in kepg. yngs in yr prest. sta. †
wh. dread reformn ′ & exert al yr facults. t. maintn. ye ascndcy. of habt. ovr ye dut. of improvg. or. reasn. & obeyg it’s mandtes. ′
In givg. yse outlines I d. nt mean f. c. ′ t. arogte. t. myself ye mert. of ye measres. ″
yt is due in ye 1st. pla. t. ye reflectg. charactr. of or. cits at large wh. b. ye wt of pblc. opn inflce. & strgthn ye pblc. measres. ″
it is due t. ye sound discretn. ′ wth. whch. y. selct. frm. amg. themselves[6] ′ yos t. whm. y. confide ye legislve duties. ″
it is due t. ye zeal & wisdm. of ye charct.rs. yus selectd. ′ wh. lay ye foundn of pblc hapness. in wholsme. laws, ′ ye exn of wch alne. remns. fr others ″
& it is due t. ye able & faithfl. auxilries. ′ whse patriotsm. hs asociatd ym wth. me in ye executive functions. ″
Durg. ys course of admn, ′ & in ordr. t. distrb. it, † ye artilry. of ye Press hs. bn. leveld. agt. us ′ chargd wth wt-soevr it’s licentness. cd devise or dare. ″
yse abuses of an instn ′ s. importt. t. fredm. & science ′ r deepl. t. b. regrt.d. † inasmch as y. tnd. t. lesn. it’s usefnss. & to sap it’s safety. ″
they mt perhaps[7] hve. bn. corct.d. ′ b. ye wholsme. punmts. † reservd. t. & provd.d. b. ye laws of ye sevl. sta. ′ agt falsehd. & defamn. ″
bt. pblc. duts. more urgt. ′ pres on ye ti. of pblc. servts. † & ye ofendrs. hve therefore[8] bn left t. find yr punmt in ye public indignn. ″
Nor ws. it uninterst.g. t. world ′ yt an expermt shd. b. fairly & fully made[9]
Whethr. fredm. of discusn. ′ unaidd. b. powr † is nt sft. fr. ye propgn & protectn. of truth ″ ?
Whethr. a govmt condct.g. itslf. ′ in ye true spirt. of it’s constn ′ wth zeal & purity †
& dog. no act wch. it wd. b. unwilg. ye who. world shd. witnss. cn b. writn. down b. falsehd. & defamn? ″
ye expermt hs. bn. tried. ″—y. hve. witns.d. ye scene. ″—or. f. c. hve. lokd. on cool & colct.d. ′—y. saw ye latnt source frm wch. yse outrags proced †
y. gathr.d. around yr pblc. functn.ries. ′ & whn. ye Constn cald. ym t. ye decs.n. b. sufrge. ′ y. pronn.ced. yr † verdict[10]
honble. t. yos wh. hd. servd ym ′ & consoltry. t. ye frnd. of Man † wh. belves. h. m. b. trustd. ′ wth. ye control of hs. own afairs. ″
No inferce. is here intnd.d. yt ye laws provd.d. b. ye stas. agt. false & defamty. pblcns ′ shd nt b. enforcd. ″
h. wh. hs. time rendrs. a servce. t. pblc morls. & pblc. tranql.ty. ′ in reformg. yse abuss. b. ye salutry. coercns. of ye law. ″
bt. ye experm.t. is notd. t. prove ′ yt snce. trth. & reasn. hve maintn.d. yr grd ′ agt. false opns in legue. wth false facts
ye Press confind. t. truth, ′ needs n. othr. legl. restraint. ″
ye pblc. jdmt wll. corct. false resngs & opns ′ on a ful hearg. of al parts. † & n. othr. defte. line cn b. drn. ′ betwn. ye inestmble. libty. of ye Prss. & it’s demorl.g. licntnss. ″
if yre b. still improprieties ′ wch. ys rule wd. nt. restrn. † it’s Suplemt mst. b. sought in ye Censorshp. of publ. opn.
Contemplt.g. ye unn. of sentmt now manfestd so generally[11] ′ as augr.g. harmon. & hapinss. t. or futre course ′ I ofr. t. or. countr. sincre. congrtlns ″
wth. yos t. nt yet ralld t. ye same point, ′ ye dispsn t. d. so is gaing. strength. ″—facts r piercg yro ye veil drawn ovr ym ′
& or. doubtg. brethrn. wll. at length see, ′ yt ye mas of yr f. c. wth. whm. y. cn.t. yet reslve t. act † as to princples. and measures[12] ynk as y. ynk & desre. wt y. desre. ″
yt or wsh as well as yrs is, ′ yt ye pblc. efrts. m. b. dirct.d. honestly. t. ye pblc. good: † yt peace b. cultvd. ′ civl. & religs. libty. unassailed ′
law & ordr. preservd. ′ equalty. of rts. maintn.d. ′ & yt sta. of propty. eql. or uneql. wch reslts. t. evry. mn frm. hs own industry. or yt of hs. fathers. ″
whn. satsfd. of yse views, ′ it is nt. in humn. natre. yt y. shd nt aprove & suprt ym. ″
in ye mean ti. let us chersh. ym wth. patient afectn. † lt us d. ym justce. & more yn justce. ′ in all competns. of interest: †
& w. need nt doubt ′ yt trth. reasn. & yr own interests wll. at length[13] prevail, † wll gathr ym int. ye fold of yr country: †
& wll. complte. yt entire union of opn ′ wch gives t. a natn. ye blesg. of harmny. & ye beneft. of al it’s strength. ″
I shll. now entr. on ye duts. t. wch. my f. c. hve agn. cald. m. † & shll. proced in ye spirt of yos princples. ′ wch y. hve aprovd. ″
I fear nt. yt an. motves. of intst. ′ m. lead m. astray. ″—I am sensble. of n. pasn. ′ wch. cd. sedce. m. knowg.ly. frm ye path of justce. ″
bt. ye weaknss.s. of humn. natre. & ye limts. of m. own undstd.g. ′ wll. prodce. errs. of jdmt somtis. ′ injurs. t. your interests. ″
I shll need yrf. al ye indulgce. ′ wch I hve heretofre. experd. frm. m. constt.nts. †—ye want of it wll. certnly. nt. lessen ′ wth. increasg. years. ″
I shll. need too ye favr. of yt beg. ′ in whse. hnds. w. r ″ who led or. fathrs. ′ as Israel of old frm. yr natve. land †
wh. plantd. ym in a country ′ flowg wth al ye necesries. of life: † wh. hs. covd or infancy. wth his provd.ce. ′ & or ripr yrs. wth hs wisdm. & powr. †
& t. whse. godnss. I ask y. ′ t. join wth. m. in suplcns † yt h. wll. s. enlightn. ye mnds. of yr. servts. ′ guide yr councls. ′ & prospr yr measures †
yt wt-soevr. y. d. shll. result in yr. good, ′ & shll. secre. t. y. ye peace, frdshp, & aprobn of all nations. ″
MS (DLC: TJ Papers, 147:25716); in TJ’s hand; undated; words in block printing shown in small capitals.

[1.] Word interlined in place of “law.”

[2.] Word interlined.

[3.] Preceding two words interlined.

[4.] Word interlined in place of “fear” (see Document XIII).

[5.] TJ here canceled “ye licents. violnce. of” (see Document XIII).

[6.] Preceding two words interlined in place of “yr own bod” (see Document XIII).

[7.] Word interlined in place of “indd.” (see Document XIII).

[8.] Word interlined.

[9.] Word written over “[tried].”

[10.] TJ first wrote “sentence †”; he canceled the word and substituted “verdict” at the end of the line (see Document XIII).

[11.] Preceding two words interlined.

[12.] Preceding five words interlined.

[13.] Preceding two words interlined.