Partial Draft

The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Volume 45: 11 November 1804 to 8 March 1805
(Princeton University Press, 2021), 646-8
[before 8 Feb. 1805]
In the great mass of our country Middle Southern & Westward[1] The progress towards a final consolidn of sentiment[2] in matters of government[3] has reached that ultimate term beyond which perhaps it is not desirable it should extend.[4] that there should be some difference of opn, some opponents[5] to the prevailing one is certainly wholsome.[6] they are[7] as watchmen over every department[8] of the government, and serving voluntarily & at their own expence, they are more active and less costly checks[9] than any constitution can contrive: experience will convince them[10] that false alarms cease to give alarm and that truth alone will have effect, if left free then[11] to exercise their office of censor thro the medrs. of the press[12] they will become more useful in preserving purity of principle & of conduct in public officers, by dragging into light every departure from it than those who act with less suspicion[13] tho’ with better intentions. In the other extremity of the union, the apparent division is nearly equal but it is apparent only, not real. the mass of citizens thus think with us in matters of govmt, but[14] are made to believe we do not think with them. facts however will at length pierce thro’ the veil under which they are covered[15] by men whose views are very different from theirs. they will at length see that their brethren who constitute the great majority of the nation[16] wish to direct all their efforts to the improvemt of our country & not to waste them in unnecessary wars; that they desire a govmt simple & attentive to it’s duties, not attempting to impose on their minds[17] by a pomp and splendour which they must pay for, but commanding respect & obedience by their integrity, their justice and the exact performance of their duties,[18] that their objects are to pay our debts, to keep the public burthens at their minimum,[19] not to feed idlers on the labor of others by creating useless offices, to have no order of men with privileges above others,[20] to maintain equality of rights and that state of property equal or unequal which results to every man by his care and industry,[21] and to enforce rigorous observance of[22] law and order. when these views are seen by them[23] it is not in human nature that[24] they should not approve & support them.[25] in the mean time let us cherish them with affection & patience let us do them justice & more than justice in all competns of interest and we may note that truth, reason & their own interest will, at length prevail will gather them into the fold of their country & will complete that union of opinion which gives to a nation[26] the benefit of all it’s strength. in furthering these objects and such others for the public good as your wisdom shall propose, you may count on my[27] zealous coopern.

 

the progress towards a final consoldn of sentiment in matters of govmt in nearly the whole of the states[28]has reached that ultimate term beyond which perhaps it is not desireable it should extend.[29] some opposition to the prevailing opinion by keeping it always at the bar of truth and[30] reason may preserve it’s purity: the opponents will learn from experience that false alarms cease to give alarm, & that in performing their censorial functions truth alone will have effect. with this restraint and the use of a free press their jealousy of the public servts.[31] may not be without use.[32] in that portion of the union where public opn is still divided the work of reunion is still advancing[33] with a slow but steady pace. facts will in time pierce thro the veil drawn over them, and our brethren there will see that the mass of their fellow citizens from whom they keep aloof think as they think, and desire what they desire; that all our efforts shall be directed to the improvemt of our country[34] not wasted in war & folly: that our governmt shall be simple, commanding respect by it’s attention to duty, not by a pomp[35] which they must pay for; to pay the public debt; to keep the public burthens at their minimum; to maintain equality of rights & that state of property equal or unequal which results to every one by[36] his care & industry, and to enforce a rigorous observance of law and order. when &c.

 

 

and in the remnant of the Union not yet entirely rallied to the same opn

 

Dft (DLC: TJ Papers, 232:42034); in TJ’s hand; undated, but prior to Madison’s remarks on full draft received 8 Feb.; second part of text written with orientation of page reversed.

[1.] Text to this point interlined, being the final iteration of multiple canceled insertions, with text including “our union” and “extent of our country.”

[2.] Word interlined in place of “opinion.”

[3.] TJ here canceled: “in three fourths of the union has continued &.”

[4.] Word interlined in place of “go.”

[5.] Word interlined in place of “opposition.”

[6.] Word interlined in place of “advantageous.”

[7.] Word interlined in place of “serve.”

[8.] Word interlined above “branch,” which TJ did not cancel.

[9.] TJ first wrote “expensive checks” and altered it to “costly censors” before altering again to read as above.

[10.] TJ first wrote “and when experience shall have convinced them” before altering the text to read as above.

[11.] TJ here canceled “to speak & to write.”

[12.] Text from “if left” to this point interlined.

[13.] TJ first wrote “dragging into public view those who depart from it than those acting with less suspicion” before altering the passage to read as above.

[14.] TJ first wrote “and in the other part of the union, the difference of opinn in <men> the citizens at large is apparent only, not real. they think in matters of govmt as we do, but.”

[15.] Preceding five words interlined in place of “drawn over them.”

[16.] Word interlined in place of “union.”

[17.] TJ first wrote “that they wish a govmt simple & attentive, not imposing on their minds.”

[18.] Preceding six words interlined in place of “their activity in duty.”

[19.] TJ here canceled: “to leave every one free to act but to the injury of another.”

[20.] TJ first wrote “not to multiply idlers on the labor of others by keeping up useless offices, to leave every one free to speak, write & act not injuring another.”

[21.] TJ first wrote “which results from every man’s lawful acquisns.”

[22.] Preceding two words interlined in place of “obedience to.”

[23.] Preceding three words interlined in place of “palpable.”

[24.] TJ here canceled “our brethren.”

[25.] Preceding three words and ampersand interlined in place of “coalesce with us.”

[26.] TJ first wrote “in the mean time it is our duty to cherish them with affection & patience, to submit ourselves to privations & sacrifices in order to do them on every occasion more than justice to gather them into the same fold, and to effect that union of opinion which renders a country invincible.”

[27.] TJ here canceled “candid concurrence.”

[28.] Preceding six words interlined above “the great mass of our union,” which TJ did not cancel.

[29.] Word interlined.

[30.] Preceding two words interlined.

[31.] TJ first wrote “with this restraint their watchfulness over the public servts.” before altering the passage to read as above.

[32.] TJ here canceled “in those parts of.”

[33.] TJ first wrote “in that portion of the union where the public opin is more equally divided we may still rely the work of reunion is still also advancing” before altering the passage to read as above.

[34.] TJ here canceled “and.”

[35.] Word interlined above “splendour,” which TJ did not cancel.

[36.] Word interlined above “from,” which TJ did not cancel.