Selected Documents

Editor Julian P. Boyd noted the "transcendent importance of this charter of national liberties," the most famous document drafted by Jefferson.

Jefferson declares that “a little rebellion now and then is a good thing” but stresses the importance of maintaining a unity of interests between the eastern and western parts of the United States.

Jefferson in Paris reacts to news of Shays Rebellion in Massachusetts by declaring I like a little rebellion now and then.

Writing to James Madison from Paris, Jefferson presents a detailed argument that “the earth belongs always to the living generation.”

Jefferson assesses the violence of the French Revolution in his celebrated Adam and Eve letter to William Short.

Jefferson frees a slave he inherited from his father-in-law.

Writing as a private citizen, Jefferson expresses his criticism of the Federalist party. The letter's subsequent unauthorized publication, often appearing out of context, haunts him for the rest of his life.

Jefferson challenges the constitutionality of the Alien and Sedition Acts and suggests the possibility of a state's authority to nullify federal law.

Jefferson expresses his opinions on education and the improvability of the human mind in this letter to a young student who asked his advice on a proper course of study.

Jefferson learns of the electoral tie between him and fellow Republican candidate Aaron Burr. The selection of the next president will be determined by vote in the House of Representatives.

Jefferson sends to a plantation owner and naturalist in Mississippi his observations on weather and climate, rainbows, and Indian vocabularies.

Jefferson updates his friends in Virginia on the suspenseful electoral impasse after repeated balloting in the House of Representatives. Not until the 36th ballot taken five days later did Jefferson know he had been selected the next president of the United States.

A long-time friend freely communicates her sentiments, offers her opinions on John Adams, and congratulates Jefferson on his election as president.

Jefferson expresses his political creed in this statement of republican principles with his unifying and conciliatory exhortation, "we are all republicans: we are all federalists."

A Connecticut gentleman cautions Jefferson that both political parties expect to share in the plums of political appointment.

In his reply to Boardman, Jefferson offers no comment on political appointments, but acknowledges receipt of a sermon on religious freedom and articulates the rights of conscience.

Some Connecticut merchants challenge the removal of a Federalist collector at New Haven and the subsequent appointment of a Republican whom they deem inadequately qualified for the position. They interpret Jefferson's inaugural address as implying presidential appointments would be merit-based without regard to party.

Jefferson clarifies misunderstandings over his removal policies, acknowledging the burden of presidential appointments and the reality of political parties.

Jefferson comments on the "dreadful operation" he must perform in finding offices for members of his party who feel that they had been denied jobs and influence in previous administrations.

The Danbury Baptists congratulate the new president and express their belief in religious liberty as a matter between God and individuals.

Jefferson's response to the Danbury Baptists is a classic expression on the place of religion in American civil society with its invocation of a "wall of separation between church and state."

Jefferson sends his cabinet members his thoughts on "the mode & degrees of communication" by which the business of government should be conducted, taking as his model the administrative example of George Washington.

Jefferson forwards a request of the Virginia legislature to send rebellious slaves to Sierra Leone.

Jefferson addresses a Seneca leader as “brother,” praises his efforts at social and economic improvement, and discusses a sale of land by the Senecas.

Jefferson outlines policies for a consolidation of settlement along the Mississippi River that will require some Indians to live within greatly reduced borders and some to relinquish claims to land east of the river.

Jefferson solicits congressional support for extending external commerce, especially by funding an exploration of the Missouri River and the territory beyond it. He suggests an appropriation of $2,500 to advance "the geographical knowledge of our own continent" and to find a route to the Pacific Ocean.

Jefferson relies on his French friend to help maintain peaceful relations between the United States and France, informs him of James Monroe's appointment as a special envoy, and stresses the importance of the Mississippi and the American right of deposit at New Orleans.

Jefferson's granddaughter accepts his invitation to become a correspondent, requests he send a French dictionary, and updates him on the schooling of her siblings.

Jefferson responds to his granddaughter's request for a French dictionary and his grandson's wish for a book of geography.

Jefferson actively participates in the landscape design of the federal city, offering suggestions on the best placement of trees along Pennsylvania Avenue.

Jefferson intends to draw up an outline comparing the doctrines of Jesus with those of other moral philosophers.

Jefferson’s son-in-law reports that one of the enslaved teenage workers at the Monticello nailery has struck another with a hammer.

Jefferson asks that an enslaved teenage worker responsible for an attack at the nailery at Monticello be sold to a slave buyer from Georgia, thereby making “an example of him in terrorem to others.”

Jefferson gives Meriwether Lewis a letter of credit authorizing him to draw on the U.S. government for whatever funds or resources may be needed for a westward exploratory expedition.

A merchant whose store was broken into (but nothing stolen) and 51 other residents of Alexandria petition the president for clemency for Samuel Miller, a journeyman shoemaker who has been sentenced to death for the burglary.

After conversing with Jefferson and considering Article 4, Section 3 of the U.S. Constitution, Nicholas argues that no amendment is necessary for the acquisition of Louisiana. He advises the president against issuing a public opinion that an amendment is needed.

Although Jefferson maintains that a “safe & precise” interpretation would require amending the Constitution before adding new territory to the union, he gives up his insistence on an amendment for Louisiana.

Jefferson touches on a variety of topics when his younger daughter is expecting her third child.

Following a discussion with Aaron Burr about their political relationship, Jefferson makes a detailed record for his files.

Jefferson informs Gerry that he will seek a second term as president to help consolidate his party's gains and resist the "unbounded calumnies" of diehard Federalists.

Enslaved servant John Freeman worries about the fate of his intended bride after the death of Mary Jefferson Eppes.

Abigail Adams, sharing the pain of parental loss of a child, breaks a long silence with Jefferson to offer condolences on the death of his daughter Mary Jefferson Eppes.

Jefferson writes his son-in-law about his intentions to honor his grandchildren’s land inheritance at Pantops, encloses a letter received from Abigail Adams, and asserts that his only disagreement with John Adams was over the “midnight appointments.”

Jefferson commends the Algerian ruler’s “attachment to the Treaty which binds us together,” promises to send cannons and naval stores, and reports that additional U.S. frigates will be sent to the Mediterranean Sea in a show of strength against Tripoli.

The territorial governor reports from New Orleans about desires for statehood and self-government in Louisiana.

Choctaw leaders state that their nation will give up a tract of land to pay the Panton, Leslie & Co. trading firm.

Jefferson sends a letter of credence to the monarch of Spain for James Monroe as minister extraordinary and plenipotentiary of the United States.

The wife of a forger of bills of exchange appeals to the president in hopes of averting her husband's prosecution.

The New England writer sends Jefferson the prospectus of her history of the American Revolution.

Jefferson affirms the general principles of his presidency and expresses hope that the nation can achieve a complete "union of sentiment."